Burning ice Planet:
Gliese 436 b is the planet which is coated in burning ice. This planet is so close to its star that it stays at a consistent 800 degrees Fahrenheit on the surface, But gravity on the planet is so powerful that it compresses all the water in the atmosphere and pushes it together into a solid forming a thick layer over the entire planet of what scientists call “.”
The planet called 55 Cancri e has a radius double the size of Earth’s, and weighs eight times more.A new study estimates that at least a third of the planet’s mass – the equivalent of the weight of three Earths – could be diamond. The diamond planet orbits at hyper speed its year lasts just 18 hours, in contrast to Earth’s 365 days.
The biggest star ever discovered YU Scuti is just plain big, with a radius 1700 times that of Sun located some 9500 light years away. That would make this star is nearly eight astronomical units across – that’s eight times the distance between the Earth and sun. In other words, this single star is so large that its outer surface would extend far beyond the orbit of the planet Jupiter.
Neutron stars are formed when stars four to eight times as massive as the Sun explode in a violent supernova leaving behind a small, dense core that continues to collapse. Gravity presses the material in on itself so tightly that protons and electrons combine to make neutrons, yielding the name “neutron star.”Neutron stars pack their mass inside a 20-kilometer (12.4 miles) diameter. They are so dense that a single teaspoon would weigh a billion tons. On average, gravity on a neutron star is 2 billion times stronger than gravity on Earth. In fact, it’s strong enough to significantly bend radiation from the star in a process known as gravitational lensing, allowing astronomers to see some of the back side of the star.
The Distant Monster:
HD 106906 b. This super-monster is 11 times more massive than Jupiter, and its gaping orbit highlights all sorts of flaws in our tenuous understanding of planetary formation. HD’s distance from its parent star is an absolutely mind-boggling 650 astronomical units (AU). The incredibly lonely Neptune, our most distant planet, lumbers around the Sun at a distance of 30 AU. Is is almost impossible for the planet to form at such large distance from the parent star. The forces responsible for making planets are usually undone by such great distances, raising the possibility that HD was created via the collapse of a debris ring. Yet HD is too massive for that to happen.
The Godzilla of Earth:
Our planet is one of the larger-sized rocky planets, but in 2014 scientists found a planet twice its size and 17 times as heavy. Though planets of this size were thought to be gas giants, this planet – named Kepler-10c – is remarkably similar to our own and has been called the “Godzilla of Earth”.
Saturn’s massive new ring:
Astronomers have recently discovered a massive new ring around Saturn. Situated 6-18 million miles (3.7-11.1 million kms) from the planet’s surface, the new ring spins in the opposite direction of the other rings. The new ring is so thinly scattered that you couldn’t tell if you stood inside it, despite the fact that a billion Earths could fit within it. Since the ring is quite cool, about -316° F, it was only recently discovered when using an infrared telescope.
Dying stars produce new life:
Once a star burns up all the hydrogen in its core, it expands to many times its normal size. As it expands, it engulfs and consumes nearby planets. Scientists have recently found, though, that more distant planets could warm up and become hotbeds for terrestrial life. In our solar system’s case, the Sun will extend past Mars’ orbit, warming conditions on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn enough to develop life.
Rogue planets are homeless worlds. They have neither sunrises nor sunsets, because unlike the planets we’re more familiar with, these lonely worlds aren’t bound to the star. Instead, they travel in solitary arcs around the Milky Way’s core. Many free-floating planets are wandering through interstellar space because they’ve been kicked out of their home stellar systems.
The largest water reservoir:
The largest water reservoir in the universe is currently floating through space, twelve billion light years away from here. In the form of a gas cloud, and several hundred light years in diameter, it holds 140 trillion times the amount of all the water in Earth’s oceans combined. Water, water everywhere. Which surrounds a huge, feeding black hole, called a quasar, more than 12 billion light-years away.
Distance between Earth and Moon:
“You can fit all the planets in the solar system between the Earth and the Moon.”
The Sun is too Big:
The Sun makes up about 99.86% of the mass in the whole solar system, and the gas giants have 99% of the remainingtakes only 8 minutes for a photon to get from the Sun to the Earth. But it can take as long as for a photon to get from the core of the Sun to the surface.
There is a type of star called a magnetar. It’s typically about 10 miles in diameter and has such a strong magnetic pull that it can suck the iron out of your blood from 50 million miles away.
‘Hottest’ planet in universe:
KELT-9b. Scientists have discovered the hottest known planet located 650 light years from Earth, which is warmer than most stars in the universe and sports a giant, glowing gas tail like a comet. With a day-side temperature peaking at 4,326 C. This is hotter than most stars and only 926 C cooler than our Sun. It is 2.8 times massive than Jupiter. Planet is so hot that molecules such as water, carbon dioxide and methane can not form there.
Triple Star system
HD 188753. It is the first known planet to reside in a “triple star system”. This means that it orbits a star, which orbits a star, which orbits a star. The sky view from this planet would be spectacular, with an occasional triple sunset. Before now, we had no clues about whether planets could form in such gravitationally complex systems. And we can see three shadows of an object on such planet.
Cold Welding :
If two pieces of metal touch in space, they become permanently stuck together. This may sound unbelievable, but it is true. Two pieces of metal without any coating on them will form in to one piece in the vacuum of space. This doesn’t happen on earth because the atmosphere puts a layer of oxidized material between the surfaces. This might seem like it would be a big problem on the space station but as most tools used there have come from earth, they are already coated with material. In fact, the only evidence of this seen so far has been in experiments designed to provoke the reaction. This process is called cold welding.
Coolest star :
CFBDSIR 1458+10B. Astronomers have detected a new candidate for the coldest known star, one whose temperature is roughly equivalent to a fresh cup of tea. The object is part of a double system and is a type of star known as a, which is essentially a failed star. They’re more massive than what’s typically considered to be a planet. It is the dimmer member of the binary brown dwarf system, which is located only 75 light-y
ears from Earth.
Rains of terror on Exoplanet:
HD 189733b. This planet’s blue hue might call to mind peaceful oceans and pleasant summer days. But don’t be fooled. It’s a huge gas giant orbiting close to its star, which would makes it a hellish place to live, for a few reasons:
a) No oceans exist ever, b) the temperature rockets as high as 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit, and c) the apparent azure sky actually comes from a deadly weather pattern: rain made of molten glass.
Its winds blow up to 5,400 mph (2 km/s) at seven times the speed of sound, whipping all would-be travelers in a sickening spiral around the planet.And getting caught in the rain on this planet is more than an inconvenience; it’s death by a thousand cuts. Thispossibly rains glass—sideways—in its howling winds. The cobalt blue color comes not from the reflection of a tropical ocean, as on Earth, but rather a hazy, blow-torched atmosphere containing high clouds laced with silicate particles.
Massive monster star:
R136a1. This star is 165,000 light years from Earth and 256 times as massive as our sun which is equal to 315 solar masses and it shines 7.4 million times as brightly. It is the most massive and most luminous star ever discovered. In other words, it’s a behemoth.
Scientists believe stars this colossal can only form when multiple smaller stars merge into each other, forming fiery chimera that live for only a few million years before they burn themselves out. It is thought that R136a1 was previously more massive but has since lost around 15% of its mass. Its incredibly large mass makes R136a1 a very unstable star, it may even explode as a supernova before its core collapses.
Coldest place in the known universe:
Boomerang Nebula. which is located just 5,000 light years away in our own galaxy. It is a preplanetary nebula, which is an intermediate stage in a dying, Sun-like star’s life. All Sun-like stars will evolve into red giants and end their lives in a planetary nebula/white dwarf combination, where the outer layers are blown off and the central core contracts down to a hot, degenerate state. But in between the red giant and the planetary nebula phases, there’s the preplanetary nebula phase.Before the internal temperature of the star heats up, but after the expulsion of the outer layers begins, we get a preplanetary nebula. Boomerang Nebula is special. Its gas gets expelled about ten times faster than normal: moving at about 164 km/s. It loses its mass at a higher rate than normal: about two Neptune’s worth of material every year. And as a result of all of this, it’s the coldest natural place in the known Universe, with some portions of the nebula coming in at just 0.5 K: half a degree above absolute zero.